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Viticulture and viniculture, beyond an economic activity, is a life style. They are the main culture of the island, as old as the history of the island. It is said that Thenes who gave the old name of the island, found a wild grape and grown it to the current stage as "Kuntra" grape. Grape has become an inseparable part of the island life. There are grape images on the old Tenedos coins.

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Rich viticulture coming from ancient times in the island has yielded to proliferation of different grape kinds. There are two main reasons for such a development: First the soil structure of the island which is very convenient for the viticulture as it consists mainly of Andesite and different layers of earth as sandy, loamy, rocky overlapping in some places. Secondly, climate structure and especially the winds from north, and the temperature difference between day and night are very convenient for viticulture.

Vineyards cover one third of the area of the island and 80% of the agricultural lands. There are four types of grapes specific to the island: the red Kuntra and Karalahna, the white Çavuş and Vasilaki. Cultivated red grape varieties are Kuntra, Karalahna, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Shiraz, Malbec, Tempranillo, Zinfandel, Cinsault, Hamburg Misketi, Kalecik Karası, Camomile (öküzgözü), Petit Verdot. The white varieties cultivated on the island are Narince, İskenderiye Misketi, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc. The table grapes: Ilkeren, Usulu, Cardinal, Alphonse, Royal, Verigo, Italy, Razaki, Yalova Incisi, Atasarısı, Early Sweet, Victoria. The worldwide known Bozcaada Çavuş grape certainly comes to the mind at first when island grapes are being spoken. Çavuş has a special importance for Bozcaada. Thanks to the windy weather of the island the best Çavuş grape is grown there. Evliya Çelebi telling about Bozcaada said "...the çavuş grape cannot grow in any other part of the world". Also Mavrella and Kokinela grapes are tried to be revived again as endemic kinds. Today, viticulture in the island is developing with both wine and byproducts (grape juice, verjuice, jam etc...).

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